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Computer Languages

Computer language or programming language is a language acceptable to a computer system, and the process of writing instructions in such a language is called coding or programming.

For computer language processing the system needs a translator to convert the language in compiler language so that it can be processed by a machine.

Types of Computer Languages are,

  1. Machine language.
  2. Assembly language.
  3. High-level language.

Machine language

Every computer understands only one language without using a translation program, this language is known as machine language. It is considered as oldest computer language among all three. Machine language is a low-level language, the input is directly given as binary input (1 and 0 0 form) which is understood and read by a computer system and interpret it easily.


  • Directly typed and extended.
  • Not requiring a translate program.


  • Difficult to remember machine instructions.
  • Difficult to understand, modify and debug errors.
  • Difficult to remember the address of data and instruction.
  • Every instruction is numerical.

Assembly Language

Assembly language is the low-level language for microprocessors, microcontroller, computer and other programmable devices. Assembly language or assembly code is considered as the second-generation language.

Machine language and assembly language are both low-level languages, but assembly language includes human-readable commands like add, sub and mov while machine language does not contain any words or even letters.
Each statement in an assembly language corresponds directly to a machine code understood by the microprocessor. The software needed to convert an assembly code to machine code is called an assembler


  • Easy to debug.
  • Operate efficiently but less efficient than machine code.
  • More standardized.


  • The language is not easy to understand.
  • Dependant with machine language.

High-level language

It is the programming language that closer to human language than machine language. They are characterised to use common English words as their instruction.

The examples of high-level languages are C, C++, JAVA, ANDROID, FORTRAN, Pascal, Perl, Ruby, and Visual Basic. In C language, the function printf() is used to display the output. The developer can easily write the program and only need is to convert it into machine code.


  • Easy to write.
  • Easy to understand.
  • Portable: It can work across different CPU families supports a wide range of data types.


  • Slower than a low-level language.
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